Unit I feedback (5 minutes)
First, let’s identify and unpack some of the New Policies (xinzheng 新政). These are best outlined outside the scope of last night’s reading beginning with the second paragraph on page 85 (“Perhaps the most dramatic. . . ) and continuing until the end of the first paragraph on page 86 (. . . “infinitely retreating horizon”).
Group discussion of key terms
Wrap up activity
Beginning with Liang Qichao’s exile in Japan in 1898, he worked to organize a series of political groups (and eventually a fully-fledged political party). Naturally, he did not have access to social media during this time. If he did, describe an image-driven meme or tweet (140 character limit) that he might have used to promote one or more of his ideas.
Essential questions for Unit II (“Slaves of a Lost Country” or Masters of a New Culture?):
Kang Youwei's Memorials
Consider the following list of edicts issued by the Guangxu emperor in 1898 as described by The Peking Gazette:
1. The establishment of a university at Beijing.
2. The sending of imperial clansmen to foreign countries to study the forms and conditions of European and American government.
3. The encouragement of the arts, sciences and modern agriculture.
4. The Emperor expressed himself as willing to hear the objections of the conservatives to progress and reform.
5. Abolished the literary essay as a prominent part of the governmental [civil service] examinations.
6. Censured those who attempted to delay the establishment of the Peking Imperial University.
7. Urged that the Lu-Han railway should be prosecuted with more vigor and expedition.
8. Advised the adoption of Western arms and drill for all the Tartar troops.
9. Ordered the establishment of agricultural schools in all the provinces to teach the farmers improved methods of agriculture.
10. Ordered the introduction of patent and copyright laws.
11. The Board of War and Foreign Office were ordered to report on the reform of the military examinations.
12. Special rewards were offered to inventors and authors.
13. The officials were ordered to encourage trade and assist merchants.
14. School boards were ordered established in every city in the empire.
15. Bureaus of Mines and Railroads were established.
16. Journalists were encouraged to write on all political subjects.
17. Naval academies and training-ships were ordered.
18. The ministers and provincial authorities were called upon to assist—nay were begged to make some effort to understand what he was trying to do and help him in his efforts at reform.
19. Schools were ordered in connection with all the Chinese legations in foreign
countries for the benefit of the children of Chinese in those places.
20. Commercial bureaus were ordered in Shanghai for the encouragement of trade.
21. Six useless Boards in Beijing were abolished.
22. The right to memorialize the throne in sealed memorials was granted to all who desired to do so.
23. Two presidents and four vice-presidents of the Board of Rites were dismissed for disobeying the emperor's orders that memorials [petitions, memorandums, etc.] should be allowed to come to him unopened.
24. The governorships of Hubei, Guangdong, and Yunnan were abolished as being a useless expense to the country.
25. Schools of instruction in the preparation of tea and silk were ordered established.
26. The slow courier posts were abolished in favor of the Imperial Customs Post.
27. A system of budgets as in Western countries was approved.
With a partner, address the following questions:
Introduce tomorrow's unit assessment:
Complete work on Sino-Japanese War woodcuts:
Check for understanding #109
Discussion on the Boxers:
Map: the Japanese Empire by 1910.
Debrief on last class
Overview of Meiji Japan and Qing China
The Empress Cixi at around age 70 in a 1905 portrait by artist Hubert Vo.
You have been commissioned to produce an online exhibit about the Empress Dowager’s emphasis on moderate reform in the years between 1861-1898 (that is, between the beginning of the Tongzhi emperor’s reign and the quashing of the Hundred Days’ Reforms). As a renowned team of historians of modern China, you have been given a free hand to shape the narrative and contents of your exhibit.
Discussion stage questions (collaborative):
Execution process (team competition):
“The Qing empire” in Patricia Buckley Ebrey, The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, 2nd ed (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 223.
Consider the following passage written by Feng Guifen:
Books on mathematics, mechanics, optics, light, chemistry, and others all contain the ultimate principles of understanding things. Most of this information is unavailable to people in China. . . . I have heard that with their new methods the Westerners have found that the movements of the earth conform closely to those of the heavens. This can be of assistance in fixing the calendar. . . . I have heard that the Westerners’ method of clearing sand from harbors is very effective. . . . This can be of assistance to keep the water flowing. Also, for agricultural and sericultural tools, and things required for the various crafts, they mostly use mechanical wheels, which require little energy but accomplish much. . . . There are many intelligent people in China. Surely there are some who, having learned from the barbarians, can surpass them. . . .
Questions for discussion:
Remains of the Western palace structures (Xiyang lou 西洋楼) built in the eighteenth century with help of Jesuits Giuseppe Castiglione and Michel Benoist. Photo by Mr. Hall, February 2011.
Review Check for Understanding
Visual source analysis
Two young visitors to the Opium War Museum in Dongguan, Guangdong. Source: City Weekend.
Quick reflection on reading strategy:
Summary of events:
Sticky note exercise:
Views on opium
Exercise: “Who is responsible?”
Essential question: Imperialism
Analyzing Visual Sources
Examine the exchange
Xi Jinping visits the "The Road Toward Renewal" exhibition along with other members of the Chinese Communist Party's Politburo Standing Committee, November 2012. Source: China.org.cn.
Check for understanding
Last class, we mentioned that we have a few themes we hope to tackle for the course. Today we are going to focus in mainly on China’s “fall and rise” by engaging with the two authors of the book, Orville Schell and John Delury.
To start, let’s take a closer look at profiles of the two authors:
As you look at these profiles, consider:
Each team will work with one of the following key terms identified in the passage from last night. Your goal is to understand what the term means in the context of contemporary China. As you browse through online search results, consider:
Homework: Assignment #102.
A few things to know:
Three goals together:
"How China sees the world" (Source: The Economist, March 2009).
Here are a few fun facts I can offer to answer the question:
Narrative of China’s modern history:
I was asked once to explain all of modern Chinese history—in an hour or less. I’d like to give you a truncated version to start out class and maybe enlist your help along the way.
My talk centered on a diagram: