Left: border states that seceded (in green) and remained in the union (in yellow). Right: complicated legal effects of the Emancipation Proclamation. Click on map to right to expand.
Step 1: Document analysis
Working with 1-2 partner(s), write brief notes to address the questions on the front of the “Who freed the slaves?” handout on the basis of your analysis of:
We will debrief some of these questions together as a class.
Step 2: Weigh the evidence
Drawing from the documents and your reading in Foner, continue working with your partner(s) to complete the chart entitled “Weigh the evidence.”
Step 3: Debrief
Left: First photographic portrait of Abraham Lincoln as president, 1861; Right: Alexander Stephens, photo undated. Both from Wikimedia Commons.
Review the “Pre-1861” and “1861” sections of the companion timeline for Ken Burns’ Civil War documentary series: http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/civil-war/war/timeline/
Based on this timeline (along with input from our previous class readings and discussion) write 1-2 sentences to summarize the cause of the Civil War using a multicausal statement.
Writing multicausal statements:
Lincoln and Stephens:
This activity is not intended to be structured as a debate. Instead, we will focus on asking good questions and collaboratively analyzing the text.
First, we will break up into two groups, with each group responsible for one of the two readings. You will have several minutes to consider the prepared questions below and think about other possible themes that came up for you in your reading.
Prepared questions for Lincoln’s First Inaugural:
Prepared questions for Stephens’ Cornerstone Address:
Next, each group will take turns posing questions—and then listening carefully—to the other group. The group not in the spotlight should begin with the prepared questions (above), though is encouraged to add elaborating questions or any other questions you might like to ask.
Finally, we will debrief together as a class.
John Brown, about 1847, daguerreotype taken by Augustus Washington, National Portrait Gallery.
Above: Map of "Bleeding Kansas" events; Below: illustration from The Life of Captain John Brown by James Redpath (sometime prior to 1860).
“Hero” or a “misguided fanatic”?
Cast of Characters individual writing #3 (10 minutes)
In completing the exercise below, please rely on Foner and not online sources. We are choosing this path as a way to improve our ability to parse text for key facts.
Pair and share
If you had been a member of the U.S. Senate in the 1850s would you have supported these compromises? Why or why not?
Debrief on the Cemetery Project.
Anticipate our next unit:
Major understandings for unit 4:
The first of these major understandings, which we will discuss in greater depth tomorrow, has to do with slavery.
Briefly explain “Cast of Characters” assessment for this unit (5 minutes)
Homework: Assignment #401
Detail from portrait of Maria Birch Coffing and her slave Jenny Winslow in Salisbury, Conn., 1844. Salisbury Association.
Homework: Assignment #104